• Park Middle School Media Center

    Creating Internal Citations

    All Internal Citations based on the MLA Handbook, 6th edition

    Internal citations are used instead of footnotes. They are included in the text of the research paper, enclosed in parentheses. It includes the author's name and page number of the source. Internal citations are used in the following instances:

    1. When the author's exact words are used.
    2. When the author's words are paraphrased or summarized.
    3. When facts, statistics or figures are used.

    Internal citations are not needed when commonly known information is used. For example, December 21st is the first day of winter.


    LINKS TO CITATION EXAMPLES

    Book with One Author | | Book with Two Authors | | Book with Three or More Authors | | Two or More Books by the Same Author | | Book with No Author | | Article Only One Page Long | | Citing the Entire Work | | Other Ways to Cite Internally |


    Book with One Author

              To create an internal citation, cite the author's last name and the page number(s) of the source in parentheses. Only the relevant pages are listed and no punctuation is used between the author's last name and the page number. The period for the sentence goes outside the parentheses.

    Example

              The assassination of Abraham Lincoln opened an era of political corruption that was a blot on our nation's history (Garrison 112).

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    Book with Two Authors

              List the last names as they will appear on the Works Cited page.

    Example

              (Sarff and Harem 27).

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    Book with Three or More Authors

              If a work has three or more authors, list the first author's name followed by the notation et al., meaning "and others" and then list the page numbers.

    Example

              (Smith et al. 50-53).

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    Two or More Books by the Same Author

              List author's last name, followed by a comma, abbreviated form of the title, underlined and the page number. There should be no comma between the title and page number.

    Example

              (Twain, Hucklebery 145).
              (Hawthorne, Scarlet 123).

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    Book with No Author

              Abbreviate the title and underline it, then write the page number.

    Example

              (Bible 393).

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    Article Only One Page Long

    Use the title of the article and omit the page number.

    Example

    (White House).

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    Citing the Entire Work

              Use the author's last name in a sentence and omit any references in parentheses.

    Example

              Turner argues that the closing of the American frontier in the 1890's led Americans to look abroad for new markets and room for expansion.

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    Other Ways to Cite Internally

              Instead of giving the author's name and the page number at the end of the sentence, the last name can be used in the sentence and then place only the page number(s) of the source in parentheses.

    Example

              Hawthorn states in The Scarlet Letter that Hester...(76).

              NOTE: If it is obvious that only one book is being used, or the quotes are coming from the same source in that part of the paper, only list the page number in the parentheses rather than continue to repeat the same author's name. However, when a new section is started, or another author or book is used, be sure to cite the last last name to avoid confusion.

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